SMR Brainwave Training Frequencies For Focus and Mental Clarity

The sensory motor rhythm (SMR) is a specific brainwave frequency range that is associated with sensorimotor integration and motor control. It falls within the frequency band of 12 to 15 hertz (Hz), which is considered a subset of the beta brainwave range. It is also referred to as mu waves or mu rhythm.

SMR activity can be observed in the brain’s sensorimotor cortex, which is responsible for coordinating voluntary movements and processing sensory information. The SMR is typically measured using electroencephalography (EEG), a technique that records electrical activity in the brain.

Research has shown that the SMR is associated with various cognitive and motor functions. It is often observed during states of calm focus, relaxation, and readiness for action. Increased SMR activity has been linked to improved motor skills, enhanced attention, and reduced impulsivity.

SMR-based neurofeedback is a technique that utilizes the SMR frequency range to train individuals to regulate their brain activity. By providing real-time feedback on SMR levels, individuals can learn to increase or decrease their SMR activity, which may have therapeutic applications in treating conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other disorders related to attention and motor control.

Neurofeedback specialist Dr. Andrew Hill describes the sensorimotor rhythm as a state of “liquid, still-body and laser-like focus,” akin to a cat attentively observing a bird on a windowsill. This state of focused attention while being physically relaxed is advantageous, as it allows for swift action when needed.

Training the slower beta brain waves of the SMR using neurofeedback protocols has proven highly effective for enhancing focus, mood, and attention span, particularly in individuals with conditions like insomnia, anxiety, and ADHD [1][2][3]. Moreover, studies suggest that SMR training can improve automaticity during skill execution, as evidenced by enhanced performance in activities like golf putting [4]. Additionally, it has shown promise in addressing cognitive decline and improving working memory in older adults [5].

Neurofeedback practitioners are also exploring SMR brainwave training as a potential aid for epilepsy, depression, stress, and autism. Improved sustained focus and concentration within the SMR frequency range have been linked to enhanced learning, reading speed, and energy levels.

However, the primary challenge with neurofeedback training for optimizing SMR control lies in its cost, often ranging from $5,000 to $10,000+ for a full course of treatment in a professional setting.

An alternative and far more affordable choice involves using NeuralSync™ recordings, a form of brainwave entrainment utilizing sound therapy to influence brainwave frequencies. While brainwave entrainment recordings are not extensively studied for medical conditions due to the fact that they cannot be patented for exclusivity and profit, their widespread popularity on platforms like YouTube suggests they are commonly used to aid with focus, creativity, and relaxation. Research has indicated that frequencies used in brainwave entrainment can improve cognition and mood, with few adverse side effects reported [6].

NeuralSync™ offers a self-directed approach for individuals seeking to explore different brainwave frequencies and their potential impact on focus and attention. It has demonstrated effectiveness in helping individuals attain the perfect zone of focus associated with SMR waves.

Trying out NeuralSync™ frequencies can provide an opportunity to experience the state of relaxed focus associated with the sensorimotor rhythm and the benefits that brainwave state offers.

MORNING BOOST SMR
MORNING BOOST SMR FREQUENCIES BY NEURALSYNC™

Two NeuralSync™ tracks are specifically tailored to addressing SMR entrainment. Morning Brain Boost , which stimulates the Sensory Motor Rhythm (SMR) for enhanced concentration and relaxed attention for the day.  This is a tri-part audio with 3 equal segments. The first four embedded frequencies induce Alpha state and release Serotonin, stimulate the right brain for increased mental clarity, the left brain for focused alertness and produce an offset Delta brain state. The second frequencies continue the Alpha and Delta states but reverse the right and left brain stimulation. The final segment raises the base brain state to low Beta while oscillating through Alpha and Theta to induce a tranquil but attentive state of mind.

Evening SMR Frequencies audio download by NeuralSync
EVENING WIND DOWN SMR FREQUENCIES BY NEURALSYNC™

Evening Wind Down engages the Sensory Motor Rhythm (SMR) to ease into a peaceful evening. The four embedded frequencies induce a baseline low Beta state while stimulating Alpha waves and Serotonin release in the right brain and Theta waves in the left, offsetting into Delta for both hemispheres.

References:

  1. Enhancing sleep quality and memory in insomnia using instrumental sensorimotor rhythm conditioning
  2. Sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback training relieves anxiety in healthy people
  3. Comparison of Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR) and Beta Training on Selective Attention and Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Trend Report
  4. Sensorimotor Rhythm Neurofeedback Enhances Golf Putting Performance
  5. SMR Neurofeedback Training Facilitates Working Memory Performance in Healthy Older Adults: A Behavioral and EEG Study
  6. Auditory Beat Stimulation and its Effects on Cognition and Mood States

Morning Brain Boost (with SMR frequencies) CD

SMR Brain Boost CD by NeuralSync

Stimulate the Sensory Motor Rhythm (SMR) for enhanced concentration and relaxed attention for the day. This a tri-part audio with 3 equal segments. The first four embedded frequencies induce Alpha state and release Serotonin, stimulate the right brain for increased mental clarity, the left brain for focused alertness and produce an offset Delta brain state. The second frequencies continue the Alpha and Delta states but reverse the right and left brain stimulation. The final segment raises the base brain state to low Beta while oscillating through Alpha and Theta to induce a tranquil but attentive state of mind.

Integrated with a 3D soundscape of falling rain. CD is digitally mastered and one hour long. DOWNLOAD VERSION AVAILABLE HERE.

Evening Wind Down (with SMR frequencies) CD

Wind Down SMR CD by NeuralSync

Engage the Sensory motor rhythm (SMR) to ease into a peaceful evening. The four embedded frequencies induce a baseline low Beta state while stimulating Alpha waves and Serotonin release in the right brain and Theta waves in the left, offsetting into Delta for both hemispheres.

Integrated with your choice of a 3D soundscape of hypnotic ocean waves, falling rain or a crackling fire.

CD is digitally mastered and one hour long. DOWNLOAD VERSION AVAILABLE HERE.

Evening Wind Down (with SMR frequencies)

Evening SMR Frequencies audio download by NeuralSync

Engage the Sensory motor rhythm (SMR) to ease into a peaceful evening. The four embedded frequencies induce a baseline low Beta state while stimulating Alpha waves and Serotonin release in the right brain and Theta waves in the left, offsetting into Delta for both hemispheres.

Integrated with your choice of a 3D soundscape of hypnotic ocean waves, falling rain or a crackling fire. 30 minutes in length.

Suggested use: Listen to the audio in the evening as you prepare to end your day.

 

Morning Brain Boost (with SMR frequencies)

MORNING BOOST SMR

Stimulate the Sensory Motor Rhythm (SMR) for enhanced concentration and relaxed attention for the day.  This a tri-part audio with 3 equal segments. The first four embedded frequencies induce Alpha state and release Serotonin, stimulate the right brain for increased mental clarity, the left brain for focused alertness and produce an offset Delta brain state. The second frequencies continue the Alpha and Delta states but reverse the right and left brain stimulation. The final segment raises the base brain state to low Beta while oscillating through Alpha and Theta to induce a tranquil but attentive state of mind.

Integrated with a 3D soundscape of falling rain. 30 minutes.

Suggested use: Listen to the audio while waking up in the morning.

Licensed for Clinical Use – Entire Audio Catalog

audio catalog image neuralsync

 

The entire NeuralSync™ audio catalog is available as a bulk purchase with license for use in therapeutic capacities. The catalog is delivered on the external hard drive and requires a signed agreement prohibiting resale. The audios may be used with multiple clients indefinitely within an office setting or outpatient treatment.

The complete list of titles is below. Both female and male versions of Hololiminals™ are included where applicable. Discounts are not offered. Financing options, including 0% interest, are available through PayPal at checkout.

If you are interested in licensing for individual titles only, they are listed here.

Package Titles:

Addiction Release

Adrenal Healing

At Ease

Attract Love

Ayahuasca Journey

Bliss

Cannabis

Chakra Awakening and Balance

Chakra Awakening and Balance with Ho’oponopono

Clairvoyance

Deep Restful Sleep

Divine Love

DMT: The God Particle

End Chronic Fatigue

Enter the Great Pyramid

Eternal Youth (Growth Hormone Release)

Euphoria

Evening Wind Down (with SMR frequencies)

Extraordinary Intuition

Fall Asleep

Fat Blaster

Fibonacci Sequence: The Golden Ration

Happiness!

Hard (Male Sexual Booster)

Headache Gone

Infernal Abyss

Inner Peace Ho’oponopono Cleaning Audio

Intense Focus

Joy Ho’oponopono Cleaning Audio

Kundalini Rising

Love Ho’oponopono Cleaning Audio

Lucid Dreams

Manifest Miracles!

Manifest Wealth

Memory Support

Mind Expansion

Morning Brain Boost (with SMR frequencies)

No More Migraine

Out of Body Experience

Pain Free

Pure Energy

Rejuvenation

Relieve Joint and Muscle Pain

Renewal Ho’oponopono Cleaning Audio

Rife Sequence for Pain

Samadhi Consciousness

Shamanic Experience

Sleep Healing with Ho’oponopono

Sleep with Memory Enhancement

Soothing Relaxation

Stress Gone

Success!

Third Eye Awakening

Transcendence

Tremor Ease

Unlimited Confidence and Self-Love

Walk with God

Wet (Female Sexual Booster)

Whole Body Healing

Zen Trance

Brainwave Entrainment Research

NeuralSync’s technology is based on the vast number of studies proving the effectiveness of brainwave entrainment. If you are interested in a more thorough understanding of the brain, states of consciousness, or the science of sound, below is an abbreviated bibliography of scientific articles and books on these subjects and more related to brainwave entrainment.

Research in support of brainwave entrainment:

Aftanas, L., Golosheykin, S., (2001) “Human Anterior and Frontal Midline Theta and Lower Alpha Reflect Emotionally Positive State and Internalized Attention: High-resolution EEG Investigation of Meditation.”  Neuroscience Letters. Vol. 310- 1, 7 57-60.

Aftanas, L., Golosheykin, S., (2005) Impact of regular meditation practice on EEG activity at rest and during evoked negative emotions. International Journal of Neuroscience.

Anand, B. K., China, G. S., & Singh, B., (1961). “Some Aspects of Electroencephalographic Studies in Yogis.” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 13, 452-456.

Anch, A.M., Browman, C.P., Mitler, M.M. & Walsh, J.K., (1988). “Sleep: A Scientific Perspective.” (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall).

Baehr, E., PhD, Rosenfeld, J. Peter, PhD, & Baehr, R., PhD, “Frontal Asymmetry Changes Reflect Brief Mood Shifts in Both Normal and Depressed Subjects.” Annual Conference, Society of Neuronal Regulation.

Bagchi, B. K., & Wenger, M. A., (1958). “Simultaneous EEG and Other Recordings During Some Yogic Practices.” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 10, 193.

Baijal, S., Narayanan S., (2010) “Theta Activity and Meditative States: Spectral Changes During Concentrative Meditation.” Cognitive Processing. Vol.11-1, 31-38.

Banquet, J. P., (1972). “EEG and Meditation.” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 33, 454.

Banquet, J. P., (1973). “Spectral Analysis of the EEG in Meditation.” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 35, 143-151.

Barnhofer, T., Chittka, T., et al., (2009) “State Effects of Two Forms of Meditation on Prefrontal EEG Asymmetry in Previously Depressed Individuals”. Mindfulness. Vol. 1-1, 21-27.

Barnhofer, T., Duggan, D., Crane, C., et al., (2007) “Effects of Meditation on Frontal [Alpha]-Asymmetry in Previously Suicidal Individuals.” Neuroreport. Vol.18, Issue 7, 709-712.

Barr D.F., Mullin T.A., Herbert P.S., (1977). “Application of Binaural Beat Phenomenon with Aphasic Patients”. Arch Otolaryngol. 103 (4): 192-194.

Basar, E., (1980) “EEG Brain Dynamics.” Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Basar, E., (ed.) (1988) “Dynamics of Sensory and Cognitive Processing by the Brain.” Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

Bear., (1977) “Efficacy of Alpha Biofeedback Training in Elevating Mood.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 334.

Beatty, J., Greenberg, A., Deibler, W. P., O’ Hanlon, J. F., (1974). “Operant Control of Occipital Theta Rhythm Affects Performance in a Radar Monitoring Task.” Science 183:871-873.

Beck, A. T., (1987). Beck Depression Inventory Manual. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc.

Beisteiner, R., Altenmuller, E., Lang, W., Lindinger, G., Deecke, L., (1994) “Measurement of Brain Potentials with EEG.” European Journal of Cognitive Psychology. 6:311-27.

Benson, H., Wallace, R.K., “Decreased Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Subjects Who Practiced Meditation.” Circulation Supplement II to Vols. 45 and 46.

Berg, K., Mueller, H., Siebael, D., Siever, D., (1999). “Outcome of Medical Methods, Audio-Visual Entrainment, and Nutritional Supplementation for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome.” Presented at the Society for Neuronal Regulation.

Berg, K., Siever, D., (1999). “Audio-Visual Entrainment as a Treatment Modality for Seasonal Affective Disorder.” Presented at the Society for Neuronal Regulation.

Bermer, F., (1958). “Cerebral and Cerebellar Potentials.” Physiological Review, 38, 357-388.

Berry, S.D., Seager, M.A., (2001). “Hippocampal Theta Oscillations and Classical Conditioning”. Neurobiological Learning Memory 76 (3): 298-313. doi:10.1006/nlme.2001.4025.

Boersma, F., Gagnon, C., (1992). “The Use of Repetitive Audiovisual Entrainment in the Management of Chronic Pain.” Medical Hypnosis Journal, Vol 7, No 3: 80-97.

Bowen, S., Witkiewitz, K., et al., (2006). Mindfulness Meditation and Substance Use in an Incarcerated Population. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. American Psychological Association 2006, Vol. 20, No. 3, 343—347.

Boynton, T., (2001). “Applied Research Using Alpha/Theta Training for Enhancing Creativity and Well-being.” Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), 5-18.

Brackopp, G. W., (1984). “Review of Research on Multi-Modal Sensory Stimulation with Clinical Implications and Research Proposals.” Unpublished manuscript–see Hutchison (1986).

Brady, B., (2000) “Binaural-beat Induced Theta EEG Activity and Hypnotic Susceptibility.” American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis.

Brefczynski-Lewis, J., Lutz, A., (2007) “Neural Correlates of Attentional Expertise in Long-term Meditation Practitioners.” Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences. vol. 104-27.

Brown, B. B., (1970). “Recognition of Aspects of Consciousness Through Association with EEG Alpha Activity Represented by a Light Signal.” Psychophysiology, 6, 442-452.

Budzynski, T. H., (1986). “Clinical Applications of Non-drug-induced States.” In B. B. Wolman & M. Ullman (Eds.), Handbook of States of Consciousness, pp. 428-460. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company).

Budzynski, T., Ph.D., “Brain Lateralization and Rescripting”.

Budzynski, T., Ph.D., Clinical Guide to Light and Sound

Budzynski, T., Ph.D., “The Case for Alpha-Theta: A Dynamic Hemispheric Asymmetry Model”.

Budzynski, T., Ph.D., (1977). “Tuning in on the Twilight Zone.” Psychology Today, August.

Budzynski, T., Ph.D., (1995) “Barebones 14 Hz EEG Training for Migraine.” Presented at the FUTUREHEALTH EEG conference.

Cade, C. M.,  Coxhead, N., (1979) The Awakened Mind: BiofeedBack and the Development of Higher States of Consciousness. New York: Delacorte Press.

Cahn, B.R., Polich J., (2006) “Meditation States and Traits: EEG, ERP, and Neuroimaging Studies.” Psychological Bulletin. Vol 132(2) 180-211.

Carter, G., (1993). Healing Myself. Norfolk: Hampton Roads Publishing Company.

Carter, Olivia L., Presti, D., et al. (2005) “Meditation Alters Perceptual Rivalry in Tibetan Buddhist Monks.” Current Biology, 15 (11).

Chatrian, G., Petersen, M., Lazarte, J., (1960). “Responses to Clicks from the Human Brain: Some Depth Electrographic Observation.” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 12: 479-487.

Chiesa, A., Serretti, A., (2010) “A Systematic Review of Neurobiological and Clinical Features of Mindfulness Meditations.” Psychological Medicine. 40: 1239-1252.

Chuter, E., Allan, M., Laws, D., (2007) “A Pilot Study Comparing Reduction of Anxiety by Binaural Beat Audio and Patient-selected Music in the Pre-operative Period.” Anaesthesia. 62, 3 310.

Cott, A., Pavloski, R. P., & Goldman, J. A.

Coulson, Louis T. & Strickland, Alison, (1990). “Journeys Into Creative Problem Solving: Inviting Insights and Inventing Ideas Through Imagery.” Applied Creative Learning Systems Inc., Seminole, FL.

Davidson, R. J., Schwartz, G. E., & Shapiro, D., (1980). Consciousness and Self-regulation: Advances in Research. (Vol. 3). New York: Plenum Press.

Davidson, R., Kabat-Zinn J., et al., (2003) “Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation.” Journal of Biobehavioral Medicine. 65:564-570.

Davidson, R., Lutz, A., (2008). “Buddha’s Brain: Neuroplasticity and Meditation.” [In the Spotlight]. Signal Processing Magazine. 25-1 176-174.

Deikman, A., (1969). “De-automatization and the Mystic Experience.” In C. T. Tart (Ed.), Altered States of Consciousness. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Delmonte, M. M., (1984). “Electrocortical Activity and Related Phenomena Associated with Meditation Practice: A Literature Review.” International Journal of Neuroscience, 24, pp. 217-231.

Dempsey, E., Morison, R., (1942). “The Interaction of Certain Spontaneous and Induce Cortical Potentials.” American Journal of Physiology, 135: 301-307.

Dewhurst-Maddock, O., (1993). The Book of Sound Therapy. Fireside Publishers.

Donaldson, S., Ph.D. and Donaldson, M., M.ED., “QEEG, Psychological Status and EMG Activity in Fibromyalgia.” SNR 2002, International Society for Neuronal Regulation.

Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H., (2003, in press) “Ecological Validity of Neurofeedback: Modulation of Slow Wave EEG Enhances Musical Performance.” NeuroReport, 14(1).

Empson, J., (1986). Human Brainwaves: The Psychological Significance of the Electroencephalogram. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd.

Epel, E., et al., (2009). “Can Meditation Slow Rate of Cellular Aging? Cognitive Stress, Mindfulness, and Telomeres.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 1172, 34-53.

Eppley, K.R., Abrams, A., (1989). “Differential Effects Of Relaxation Techniques on Trait Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 45, 6: 957-973.

Etnier, J. L., Whitwer, S. S., Landers, D. M., Petruzzello, S. J., & Salazar, H. M., (1996) “Changes in Electroencephalographic Activity Associated with Learning a Novel Motor Task.” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 67(3), 272-287.

Evans, F. J., (1972). “Hypnosis and Sleep: Techniques for Exploring Cognitive Activity During Sleep.” In E. Fromm & R. E. Shor (Eds.), Hypnosis: Research developments and perspectives. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.

Evans, R J., Gustafson, L. A., O’Connell, D. N., Orne, M. T. & Shor, R. E., “Verbally Induced Behavioral Response During Sleep.” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1, 1-26.

Farb, N., Segal., et al., (2007) “Attending to the Present: Mindfulness Meditation Reveals Distinct Neural Modes of Self-Reference.” Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience. Volume 2, Issue 4. 313-322.

Felipe, A., “Attitude Change During Interrupted Sleep.” Yale University Doctoral dissertation.

Fell, J., Axmacher, N., Haupt, S., (2010) “From Alpha to Gamma: Electrophysiological Correlates of Meditation-related States of Consciousness.” Medical Hypotheses. Vol.75, Issue 2, P.218-224.

Fischer, R., (1971). “A Cartography of Ecstatic and Meditative States.” Science, 174 (4012), pp. 897-904.

Foster, D. S., (1990) “EEG and Subjective Correlates of Alpha Frequency Binaural Beats Stimulation Combined with Alpha BiofeedBack.” Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, Order No. 9025506.

Foulkes, D. & Vogel, G., (1964). “Mental Activity at Sleep-onset.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70, 231-243.

Fox, P., Raichle, M., (1985). “Stimulus Rate Determines Regional Blood Flow in Striate Cortex.” Annals of Neurology, Vol 17, No 3: 303-305.

Fredrick, J., Lubar, J., Rasey, H., Blackburn, J., (1999). “Effects of 18.5 Hz Audiovisual Stimulation On EEG Amplitude at the Vertex.” Proceedings AAPB Thirteenth Anniversary Annual Meeting, 42-45.

Gaynor, Md., M.L., (2002) The Healing Power of Sound. Shambhala Publications.

Gerken, G. M., Moushegian, G., Stillman, R. D., & Rupert, A. L.,(1975). “Human Frequency-following Responses to Monaural and Binaural Stimuli.” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 38, 379-386.

Gevins, A., Smith, M. E., McEvoy, L., & Yu, D., (1997) “High-resolution EEG Mapping of Cortical Activation Related to Working Memory: Effects of Task Difficulty, Type of Processing, and Practice.” Cerebral Cortex. 7(4), 374-385.

Giannitrapani, D., (1985). The Electrophysiology of Intellectual Functions. New York: Karger.

Giannitrapani, D., (1969). “EEG Average Frequency and Intelligence.” Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 27, 480-486.

Gontgovsky, S., Montgomery, D., (1999). “The Physiological Response to “Beta Sweep” Entrainment.” Proceedings AAPB Thirteenth Anniversary Annual Meeting, 62-65.

Gottselig, J.M., Brandeis, D., Hofer-Tinguely, G., Borby, A.A., Achermann, P., (2004). “Human Central Auditory Plasticity Associated with Tone Sequence Learning”. Learning Memory. 11 (2): 162—71. doi:10.1101/lm.63304.

Green, E. E. & Green, A. M., (1986). “Biofeedback and States of Consciousness.” In B. B. Wolman & M. Ullman (Eds.), Handbook of States of Consciousness, pp. 553-589. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

Green, E. E., Green, A. M., & Walters, E. D., (1970). “Voluntary Control of Internal States: Psychological and Physiological.” Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 2, 1-25.

Griffin, A.L,, Asaka, Y., Darling, R.D., Berry, S.D., (2004). “Theta-contingent Trial Presentation Accelerates Learning Rate and Enhances Hippocampal Plasticity During Trace Eyeblink Conditioning”. Behavioral Neuroscience. 118 (2): 403-11. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.118.2.403.

Guilfoyle, G. & Carbone, D., (1996). “The Facilitation of Attention Utilizing Therapeutic Sounds.” Presented at the New York State Association of Day Service Providers Symposium, October 18, 1996, Albany, New York.

Gurnee, R., “Major Depressive Disorder: QEEG Subtypes and Treatment Implications.” Annual Conference, Society of Neuronal Regulation.

Hammond, D. Corydon, Ph.D., “EEG Patterns Associated with High Hypnotizability: Practical Clinical Implications”.

Hammond, D. Corydon, Ph.D., “Roshi Compared with the Rosenfeld Depression Protocol: A Case Report.” Annual Conference, Society of Neuronal Regulation.

Hammond, D. Corydon, Ph.D., (1999). “Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome with Neurofeedback and Self-hypnosis: A Case Report.” Journal of Neurotherapy, 3 (3 & 4) 63-64.

Hardt, J. V., & Kamiya, J., (1978). “Anxiety Change Through Electroencephalographic Alpha Feedback Seen Only in High Anxiety Subjects.” Science, 201, 79-81.

Hawes, T., M.ED., ED.S., Using Light And Sound Technology To Access “The Zone” In Sports And Beyond.

Henry, J.P., (1992). Instincts, Archetypes and Symbols: An Approach to the Physiology of Religious Experience. Dayton: College Press.

Hermens, D. F., Soei, E. X., Clarke, S. D., Kohn, M. R., Gordon, E., Williams, L. M., (2005). “Resting EEG Theta Activity Predicts Cognitive Performance in Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.”

Hink, R. F., Kodera, K., Yamada, O., Kaga, K., & Suzuki, J., (1980). “Binaural Interaction of a Beating Frequency Following Response.” Audiology, 19, pp. 36-43.

Hirai, T., (1960) “Electroencephalograpic Study of Zen Meditation.” Psychiatry. Neurology. 62, 76-105.

Hoovey, Z. B., Heinemann, U. & Creutzfeldt, O. D., (1972). “Inter-hemispheric ‘Synchrony’ of Alpha Waves.” Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 32, 337-347.

Howard, C. E., Graham, L. E., 2nd and Wycoff, S. J., (1986). “A Comparison of Methods for Reducing Stress Among Dental Students.” J Dent Education. 50, 542-544.

Hunt, V. V., (1995). Infinite Mind: The Science of Human Vibrations. Malibu: Malibu Publishing Company.

Hurley, J.D., & Meminger, S. R., (1992). “A Relapse-prevention Program: Effects of Electromyographic Training on High and Low Levels of State and Trait Anxiety.” Perceptual and Motor Skills. 74, 699705.

Hutchison, Michael M., (1986). Megabrain: New Tools and Techniques for Brain Growth and Mind Expansion. New York: W. Morrow. ISBN 0-688-04880-3.

Ibric, Victoria L. , MD, PhD., “Neurofeedback in Major Depression Associated to Addictions – A Case Study.” Journal Of NeuroTherapy.

Jackson, G. M., & Eberly, D. A., (1982) “Facilitation of Performance on an Arithmetic Task as a Result of the Application of a Biofeedback Procedure to Suppress Alpha Wave Activity.” Biofeedback and Self-Regulation. 7, 211-221.

Jain, S., Shapiro, S.L., et al., (2007) “A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness Meditation Versus Relaxation Training: Effects on Distress, Positive States of Mind, Rumination, and Distraction.”  Annals of Behavioral Medicine Volume 33, Number 1, 11-21.

James H. Satterfield, M.D., Dennis P. Cantwell, M.D., Ronald E. Saul, M.D., Alvin Yusin, M.D., (1974). “Intelligence, Academic Achievement, and EEG Abnormalities in Hyperactive Children.” American Journal of Psychiatry. 131:4.

Jausovec, N., (1996). “Differences in EEG Alpha Activity Related to Giftedness.” Intelligence, 23, 159-173.

Jevning, R., Wallace, R. K., & Beidenbach, M., (1992). “The Physiology of Meditation: A Review. A Wakeful Hypnometabolic Integrated Response.” Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 16, pp. 415-424.

Jovanov, E., Rakovi, D., Car, M., (1995) “Evaluation of State of Consciousness Using Software Support for Monitoring Spatio-temporal EEG Changes.” ISCA International. Conference on Computer Applications in Engineering and Medicine.

Kamiya, J., (1969) “Operant Control of the EEG Alpha Rhythm and Some of its Reported Effects on Consciousness.” In Tart (Ed.), Altered States of Consciousness (pp. 519-529).

Karino, S., Yumoto, M., et al., (2006) “Neuromagnetic Responses to Binaural Beat in Human Cerebral Cortex.” Journal of Neurophysiology. 96. 1927-38.

Kasamatsu, A., & Hirai, T., (1969) “An Electroencephalographic Study on the Zen Meditation.” In Tart (Ed.), Altered States of Consciousness (pp. 501-514).

Kennerly, R. C., (1994). “An Empirical Investigation into the Effect of Beta Frequency Binaural Beat Audio Signals on Four Measures of Human Memory.” Department of Psychology, West Georgia College, Carrolton, Georgia.

Kennerly, R., (2004) “QEEG Analysis of Binaural Beat Audio Entrainment: A Pilot Study.” Journal of Neurotherapy.

Klepp, S., (2005) “Effects of Binaural-beat Stimulation on Recovery Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study.” Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine.

Klinger, E., Gregoire, K. C., Barta, S. G., (1973) “Physiological Correlates of Mental Activity: Eye Movements, Alpha, and Heart Rate During Imaging, Suppression, Concentration, Search, and Choice.” Psychophysiology, 10, 471-477.

Kooi, K. A., (1971). Fundamentals of Electroencephalography. New York: Harper & Row.

Kosycki, D., Benger, M., et al., (2007). “Randomized Trial of a Meditation-based Stress Reduction Program and Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder.” Behaviour Research and Therapy. Vol. 45-10, 2518-2526.

Lagopoulos, J., Xu, J., Rasmussen, I., et al., (2009) “Increased Theta and Alpha EEG Activity During Nondirective Meditation.”  The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 15(11): 1187-1192.

Lane, J. D., Kasian, S. J., Owens, J. E. and Marsh, G. R., (1998). “Binaural Auditory Beats Affect Vigilance, Performance and Mood.” Physiology Behaviour. 63, 249-252.

Lawson, R., and Rogers, R., “Relationship Between Depression Severity and Overall EEG Abnormality.” Annual Conference, Society of Neuronal Regulation.

Lawson, R., M.S., and Bodenhamer-Davis, E., “Anterior Alpha Asymmetry in Anxiety and Depression.” Annual Conference, Society of Neuronal Regulation.

Lawson, R., M.S., Barnes, T., M.A., “EEG Asymmetry and Depression Severity: A Comparison of Various Asymmetry Measures.” QEEGT. University of North Texas, Neurotherapy Lab, Annual Conference, Society of Neuronal Regulation.

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